Tuesday, December 18th, 2018
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UV Systems

UV Systems
Ultraviolet is a proven, dependable and effective method of controlling and eradicating algae spores, bacteria, and protozoa without leaving any residuals in the water.

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation has been shown to kill the majority of today's known bacteria, viruses, molds, fungi, protozoa, and other living organisms.  Standards for UVGI systems are developed and monitored by a variety of government agencies.




UV Technology

This section will provide technical information that demonstrates the many capabilities we offer to provide solutions to your most demanding UV application needs.

Light is electromagnetic radiation, or radiant energy traveling in the form of waves. UV energy is found in the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and x-rays and can best be described as invisible radiation. The energy employed for UV water treatment is further categorized into two primary levels measured as wavelengths - 254 nm and 185 nm, where nm = 1/1000 of a micron. For disinfection and ozone applications, the 254nm wavelength is utilized. For TOC and Chlorine applications a unique wavelength is utilized.  

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Electromagnetic Spectrum UV Light


 
Water Disinfection with UV

The UV radiation penetrates the outer cell wall of the microorganism, passes through the cell body, reaches the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and alters the genetic material. The microorganisms are thereby destroyed in a non-chemical manner (Figure 1). The 254 nm UV light is also used to destroy residual ozone present in a water stream. The 185 nm UV light, utilized in TOC reduction applications, decomposes the organic molecules. The 185 nm light carries more energy than the 254 nm light. The 185 nm light generates hydroxyl (OH·) free radicals from water molecules.


The use of UV technology for water treatment has several inherent advantages. UV radiation does not ‘add' anything to the water stream such as undesirable color, odor, chemicals, taste or flavor, nor does it generate harmful by-products. It only imparts energy to the water stream in the form of ultraviolet radiation to accomplish the process of disinfection, TOC reduction or ozone destruction. UV disinfection produces no residual disinfectant to the finished water.

Our Select UV systems feature low pressure mercury discharge lamps. The lamps are constructed with a special quartz envelope material that looks like glass, but is actually a discriminating filter. This exclusive design allows predominantly 254 nm or 185 nm UV energy to be transmitted into a water stream as it flows through the UV system's treatment chamber. The primary uses of UV for water treatment are: Disinfection , TOC Reduction , Ozone Destruction and Chlorine Destruction .

In specific water treatment applications, ozone is applied to the water stream to oxidize trace organics, or to disinfect the piping and distribution system, but residual ozone is often left behind.

 


Ozone Destruction

Our Select UV ozone destruction units add UV energy to ozone, catalyzing  the ozone  into  harmless  oxygen. Our ozone destruction units can be guaranteed to completely destroy the ozone in the water and thereby help insure the integrity fo the process and the product.

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TOC Reduction
In ultrapure water systems, Our Select UV systems are used for the effective reduction of organics, commonly referred to as TOC (Total Oxidizable Carbon).



TOC Reduction
Used effectively as a system for the reduction of organics, commonly referred to as TOC (total oxidizable carbon,) Our Select utilizes ultraviolet light in a 185nm wavelength. This energy promotes the formation of free radicals, leading to the oxidation of organics into CO2 and H20 and is more powerful than the 254nm used in disinfection applications.

 
Efficient in high volume ultrapure, waste or reclaim applications, Select TOC systems have the flexibility to serve indoor or outdoor installations and are also available in modular skid designs. Select ultraviolet systems are a safe and effective alternative for TOC destruction, providing low maintenance costs and utlizing non-toxic UV light with minimal byproducts.

Disinfection
All living organisms contain DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). DNA provides the mechanism  for all functions needed to sustain life. Select disinfection systems emit UV light that  penetrates the outer cell membrane of microorganisms, passes through the cell body, reaches the DNA and alters the genetic material. The microorganism is thereby destroyed in a non-chemical manner and is unable to reproduce.

When organisms absorb UV light in the range of 200-300nm, DNA and RNA molecules absorb the UV. The DNA molecule contains all the genetic information needed for replication. UV absorption causes disruption of the nucleic material of the double helix strands. This prevents replication, which is lethal to the cell. The absorption of UV radiation at 254nm causes the formation of dimers along the DNA strands. Dimers are A_A (adenine - adenine), GG (guanine -guanine), T-T (thymine-thymine) compounds as opposed to the normal formation of A-T-G-C- etc.


DNA Double Strand

If the dosage is not optimized, then complete inhibition of replication WILL NOT occur. On the other hand, an insufficient UV dosage may cause limited damage to the DNA, which then can, under favorable conditions, repair using repair enzymes. That's why it is extremely critical to impart the OPTIMUM UV dosage to prevent repair. While bacteria have built-in repair enzymes, viruses do not. Therefore, they have to rely on the enzymes of the host cell.

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Chlorine/Chloramine Destruction

UV radiation can effectively eliminate residual chlorine/chloramine present in water. Research studies in this area were triggered by the recognition of the undesirable, negative effects of conventional dechlorination technologies such as activated carbon filtration and sodium metabisulfite injection.

Both of these processes have significant inherent drawbacks. Carbon beds are excellent breeding grounds for bacteria to thrive and proliferate. Chemical addition involves the introduction of an added substance and is therefore undesirable. As an alternative to use of chemicals and activated carbon beds, UV technology can be utilized to destroy chlorine/chloramine, thereby eliminating the need for chemical handling, bacteria problems, etc.


Chlorine Removal System

Research studies sponsored by our team have demonstrated conclusively that Free Chlorine residuals over 1.0 ppm and Chloramine residuals over 2.0 ppm can be successfully destroyed by the application  of UV radiation.  With decades of experience in the semconductor, bio-pharma and food-beverage industries, Water 2000 has a well-rounded understanding of the design and construction of water systems for these applications, as well as in unique applications such as aquaculture, cooling towers, and power generation systems.

Our expertise has expanded as the food and beverage industries have grown in their preference for UV over traditional methods. With UV there is no change in taste, no chemical handlin or chemical costs, no removal of chlorine from the water stream or generation of byproducts.

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