Tuesday, September 29th, 2020
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Water Facts

Water Facts

20 Interesting and Useful Water Facts

10 Reasons to Drink Water 

10 Reasons to Use a Water Filter 

10 Benefits of Using a Water Filter

10 Reasons to Use a Whole House Water Filter

10 Benefits of Using a Whole House Water Filter

Water & Aged Home Plumbing

Corrosion by Natural Waters

Corrosion Dissolved Mineral Salts



Prevention of Contamination of Drinking Water Health Considerations


Prevention of Contamination of Drinking Water In sickness and Health

Fun Facts About Water

Shelf Life of Bottled Water

Comfort Factor

Dehydration Detection:

Plain Water Doesn't Tickle Your Fancy:

Water Game Plan:

Water and Source of Problems



Higher Salt Intake Tied to Longevity

Salt Intake is Vital

Low-Salt Diet a Risk?

Top Essentials of Life


IMPORTANT Tips To Know Before Starting The Water Cure Program

There are four ways to take the salt: 


Interesting Water Supply Facts


Winter Hydration Tips

Frequently Asked Questions

Did you know...

1.1 billion people lack access to an improved water supply - approximately one in six people on earth. 

2.6 billion people in the world lack access to improved sanitation. 

Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (or about 0.007% of all water on earth) is readily accessible for direct human use. 

A person can live weeks without food, but only days without water. 

A person needs 4 to 5 gallons of water per day to survive.

The average American individual uses 100 to 176 gallons of water at home each day. The average African family uses about 5 gallons of water each day. 

Millions of women and children spend several hours a day collecting water from distant, often polluted sources. 

Water systems fail at a rate of 50% or higher.

Every $1 spent on water and sanitation creates on average another $8 in costs averted and productivity gained. 

Almost two in three people lacking access to clean water live on less $2 a day.

Poor people living in the slums often pay 5-10 times more for per liter of water than wealthy people living in the same city.

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Water-Related Disease Facts

Did you know...

Every 15 seconds, a child dies from a water-related disease.

For children under age five, water-related diseases are the leading cause of death.

88 percent of all diseases are caused by unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.

At any given time, half of the world's hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from a water-related disease.

1.8 million children die each year from diarrhea – 4,900 deaths each day. 

No intervention has greater overall impact upon national development and public health than the provision of safe drinking water and the proper disposal of human waste.

Human health improvements are influenced not only by the use of clean water, but also by personal hygiene habits and the use of sanitation facilities.

Close to half of all people in developing countries are suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by water and sanitation deficits.

The water and sanitation crisis claims more lives through disease than any war claims through guns.

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Learn more about the water crisis

•  Read about the latest developments in the world water crisis in our weekly  Crisis Headlines Digest .

•  Download  Lesson Plans  for teachers and children on the water crisis

•  Learn about the  Water Crisis in the Countries  where we work.

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20 Interesting and Useful Water Facts

  1. Roughly 70 percent of an adult's body is made up of water.
  2. At birth, water accounts for approximately 80 percent of an infant's body weight.
  3. A healthy person can drink about three gallons (48 cups) of water per day.
  4. Drinking too much water too quickly can lead to water intoxication.Water intoxication occurs when water dilutes the sodium level in the bloodstream and causes an imbalance of water in the brain.
  5. Water intoxication is most likely to occur during periods of intense athletic performance.
  6. While the daily recommended amount of water is eight cups per day, not all of this water must be consumed in the liquid form.Nearly every food or drink item provides some water to the body.
  7. Soft drinks, coffee, and tea, while made up almost entirely of water, also contain caffeine.Caffeine can act as a mild diuretic, preventing water from traveling to necessary locations in the body.
  8. Pure water (solely hydrogen and oxygen atoms) has a neutral of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.
  9. Water dissolves more substances than any other liquid.Wherever it travels, water carries chemicals, minerals, and nutrients with it.
  10. Somewhere between 70 and 75 percent of the earth's surface is covered with water.
  11. Much more fresh water is stored under the ground in aquifers than on the earth's surface.
  12. The earth is a closed system, similar to a terrarium, meaning that it rarely loses or gains extra matter.The same water that existed on the earth millions of years ago is still present today.
  13. The total amount of water on the earth is about 326 million cubic miles of water.
  14. Of all the water on the earth, humans can used only about three tenths of a percent of this water.Such usable water is found in groundwater aquifers, rivers, and freshwater lakes.
  15. The United States uses about 346,000 million gallons of fresh water every day.
  16. The United States uses nearly 80 percent of its water for irrigation and thermoelectric power.
  17. The average person in the United States uses anywhere from 80-100 gallons of water per day.Flushing the toilet actually takes up the largest amount of this water.
  18. Approximately 85 percent of U.S.residents receive their water from public water facilities.The remaining 15 percent supply their own water from private wells or other sources.
  19. By the time a person feels thirsty, his or her body has lost over 1 percent of its total water amount.
  20. The weight a person loses directly after intense physical activity is weight from water, not fat.

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10 Reasons to Drink Water

  1. Water is absolutely essential to the human body's survival.A person can live for about a month without food, but only about a week without water.
  2. Water helps to maintain healthy body weight by increasing metabolism and regulating appetite
  3. Water leads to increased energy levels. The most common cause of daytime fatigue is actually mild dehydration.
  4. Drinking adequate amounts of water can decrease the risk of certain types of cancers, including colon cancer, bladder cancer, and breast cancer.
  5. For a majority of sufferers, drinking water can significantly reduce joint and/or back pain.Water leads to overall greater health by flushing out wastes and bacteria that can cause disease.
  6. Water can prevent and alleviate headaches.
  7. Water naturally moisturizes skin and ensures proper cellular formation underneath layers of skin to give it a healthy, glowing appearance.
  8. Water aids in the digestion process and prevents constipation.

 Water is the primary mode of transportation for all nutrients in the body and is essential for proper circulation.

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10 Reasons to Use a Water Filter

  1. In order to capitalize on the health benefits of water, it is essential to draw from a clean source of water. 
  2. Drinking impure, contaminated water is the leading cause of epidemic disease in developing countries. 
  3. There are more than 2100 known drinking water contaminants that may be present in tap water, including several known poisons.
  4. Bottled water does not offer a viable alternative to tap water. 
  5. Municipal water treatment facilities cannot always control for the outbreak of dangerous bacterial contaminants in tap water. 
  6. The only way to ensure pure, contaminant-free drinking water is through the use of a point-of-use filtration system.
  7. Several types of cancer can be attributed to the presence of toxic materials in drinking water. 
  8. Clean, healthy drinking water is essential to a child's proper mental and physical development.
  9. According to the EPA, lead in drinking water contributes to 480,000 cases of learning disorders in children each year in the United States alone.
  10. It is especially important for pregnant women to drink pure water as lead in drinking water can cause severe birth defects.


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10 Benefits of Using a Water Filter

  1. Water filters provide better tasting and better smelling drinking water by removing chlorine and bacterial contaminants.
  2. Point-of-use water filters remove lead from drinking water immediately prior to consumption, thus preventing this harmful substance from entering the body.
  3. The purchase of a countertop filter results in a source of clean, healthy water that costs much less than bottled water.
  4. Water filters greatly reduce the risk of rectal cancer, colon cancer, and bladder cancer by removing chlorine and chlorine byproducts from drinking water.
  5. A solid block carbon water filter can selectively remove dangerous contaminants from drinking water while retaining healthy mineral deposits that balance the of drinking water.
  6. Drinking clean, filtered water protects the body from disease and leads to overall greater health.
  7. A water filter provides clean, healthy water for cooking, as well as drinking, at the convenience of tap water.
  8. Water filters reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disease by more than 33 percent by removing cryptosporidium and giardia from drinking water.
  9. Drinking pure water is especially important for children. Water filters provide the healthiest water for children's developing immune systems.
  10. Water filters offer the last line of defense between the body and the over 2100 known toxins that may be present in drinking water.


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10 Reasons to Use a Whole House Water Filter

  1. Harmful chemicals constantly escape into the air in a home from the dishwasher, the toilet, and the shower.
  2. The release of water contaminants into the air results in poor air quality in a home.
  3. This poor air quality is a leading cause of asthma and bronchitis.
  4. The use of a countertop water filter and shower filter cannot entirely protect a home from harmful water contaminants.
  5. Shower filters, because they must filter water at extreme temperatures, are not 100% effective at removing all dangerous contaminants.Many skin rashes and other irritations are a result of chlorine and volatile organic chemicals s that have become embedded in clothing washed in chlorinated water.
  6. The dishwasher releases more chlorine into the air than any other water source in the house, besides the shower.
  7. The use of a whole house water filter is the only way to ensure pure, filtered water from every water source in the house.
  8. A whole house water filter purifies water efficiently and cost-effectively, making it a viable solution to drinking water contamination for a majority of people.
  9. The 2100 known water contaminants can make their way into our bodies not just from drinking the actual water but also from inhalation and dermal absorption.
  10. Merely avoiding drinking tap water by indulging in bottled water is not an effective means of protection against dangerous water contaminants.


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10 Benefits of Using a Whole House Water Filter


  1. Clean, filtered water emerges from every water source in the house.
  2. Chlorine and other chemicals are removed as soon as they enter a home's plumbing system and are no longer released into the air.
  3. When chlorine and other chemicals are removed from water used for washing, these chemicals can no longer become embedded in clothing.
  4. Removing chlorine from the water used in dishwashing prevents chlorine vapors from being released into the air and reduces soap scum on dishes.
  5. Using a whole house water filter greatly enhances the overall healthfulness of drinking water.
  6. Using a whole house water filter can alleviate the effects of asthma and allergies (for those who already suffer) by providing cleaner air to breathe in the house.
  7. Filtering water through a whole house water filter eliminates the risks of both drinking and showering in contaminated water.
  8. A whole house water filter is the only truly effective shower filter. It filters water at low temperatures to facilitate the removal of chlorine and other chemicals.
  9. Using a whole house water filter ensures protection from the carcinogenic effects of both drinking and inhaling chlorine and other dangerous chemicals.
  10. The use of a whole house water filter is the last means of protection from breakdowns in municipal water treatment and sanitation systems.


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More Interestting facts about Water

Whether you're talking around the "water-cooler" or looking for some fun topics to discuss during your water tasting - here are some interesting facts about water.

About 70 percent of the Earth is covered by water.  But more than just the oceans, water also exists in the air as vapor, in the ground as moisture and in aquifers, glaciers, lakes and (sadly) as runoff from municipalities.  But, interestingly, there is no "new" water.  Water on planet Earth is constantly recycled due to what is known as the "water cycle".  Our planet's supply is constantly moving from sea, to clouds, to rain, to earth and back again.

In the United States , we use more than 400 billion gallons per day of both surface and ground water.  To fully measure just how much water there is on the planet - consider these numbers:

The total water supply of the planet earth is estimated at 326 million cubic miles.  One cubic mile of water equals more than one trillion gallons.

It's estimated that 3,100 cubic miles of water (mostly vapor) is in the planet's atmosphere at any one time.  To answer the inevitable question - if it all rained at once - the Earth would be covered in only 1 inch of water.

The continental United States recieves anywhere from 3.5 to 4 cubic miles of precipitation each day.  For those of you still counting thats 12 Trillion gallons of water per day.

If all of the planet's water was poured in the United States , it would cover all the land in an ocean with a depth of 90 miles.

Finally, of the more than 2,000,000 cubic miles of fresh water that is stored in the Earth - most of it is within one-half mile of the surface.

Contrast that with the 60,000 cubic miles of water stored as fresh water in lakes, inland seas, and rivers.  And, if you really want to find fresh water, the most is stored in the 7,000,000 cubic miles of water found in glaciers and icecaps, mainly in the polar regions and in Greenland .

Water is the most universal solvent on the planet.  Even more than a substance such as sulphuric acid. Although sulfuric acid might be able to dissolve a car more quickly, water can dissolve more substances than any other liquid.

Water is the only natural substance that is found in all three states -- liquid, solid (ice), and gas (steam).

And, finally, as you choose whether you're going to drink municipal tap water, or fine bottled water, consider that you are what you drink. 

Shelf Live of Water

In general a product's shelf life or safe storage time is affected by a number of variables, including intrinsic parameters, such as pH and moisture content, and extrinsic parameters, such as environmental factors. Understanding these variables is key to maintaining a safe food product.

Bottled Water - indefinitely shelf live  under optimal conditions The FDA has not established a shelf life for bottled water. In the United States bottled water's shelf life is date stamped for two years. This acts as a SKU number and is mainly for stock rotation purposes. It does not imply that the product is compromised after that date. As long as bottled water is packaged in accordance with FDA processing and good manufacturing practices, 21 CFR, Part 129, and is meeting the FDA quality standard provisions as outlined in 21 CFR, Part 165, the product's shelf life should remain intact for an indefinite period of time.

Properly stored bottled water has indefinitely shelf live. However, long-term storage of bottled water may result in aesthetic defects, such as off-odor and taste. IBWA advises consumers to store bottled water in an unopened container at room temperature (or cooler), out of direct sunlight and away from solvents and chemicals such as gasoline, paint thinners and dry cleaning chemicals.

Bottled water is an excellent choice for emergency water storage. FDA Good Manufacturing Practices mandate that bottled water be produced in a sanitary environment and bottled in sanitary, safety-sealed containers.
Tap Water – rotate every six month under optimal conditions The recommendations are different for water (tap water) that is filled in containers and  stored for an food and water emergency. FEMA recommendations for water that is self bottled are to store the water in thoroughly washed plastic, glass, fiber glass or enamel-lined metal containers. Plastic containers such as soft drink bottles are considered a good choice. The containers need to be sealed tightly, labeled and stored in a cool dark place. The recommendation is to rotate water every six month.

Recently released emergency preparedness guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security recommend that all households maintain an emergency supply of water -- at least one gallon per person per day for three days -- for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene.


Food and Water in an Emergency  (FEMA)

 Bottled Water Regulations and the FDA

 International Bottled Water Association  (IBWA)

 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

 Food and Drug Administration  (FDA) Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)

  • Did you know that water makes up 60% of the human body and 70% of the brain? Also, that a person can live several days without food but only a few days without water? Like air, water is essential to life, as it plays a vital role in helping the body to function and stay healthy. Water helps to regulate the body's temperature, transport nutrients and oxygen to cells, removes waste and protects organs, joints and tissue.
  • Nutritionists recommend drinking at least 2 litres of water each day to help stay healthy.
  • In the U.S. , around 75% of people know this fact but only half actually drink around 2 litres per day. The most frequently consumed beverages are coffee, tea and soft-drinks. Only 3% of all drinks consumed are bottled water.
  • The average per litre consumption of bottled water in New Zealand is 9 litres per person per year which is lower than the world average of 16.3L per person per year.
  • In Australia and New Zealand , bottled water is the fastest growing beverage category with sales growing at over 30% year on year.

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 Hydration Tips

Proper hydration helps keep our kidneys in good order as it plays a filtration role. It's also essential in the prevention of kidney stone diseases. Every day, 8 litres of water is secreted and reabsorbed into the intestine.

Adequate hydration or water intake is also necessary for physical exercise, as studies show that a 2% body weight water loss is equivalent to a 20% decrease in physical performance.

The Nutrition Information Center at The Rockefeller University offers the following tips for maintaining proper hydration:

Drink at least eight 250ml servings of water each day. The more active you are, the more water you need to replenish lost fluids.Drink plenty of water throughout the day.

Don't wait until you're thirsty to drink water. By the time you feel thirsty, you have probably already lost two or more cups of your total body water composition. Deep yellow or amber coloured urine can be a sign of dehydration.

Don't substitute beverages with alcohol or caffeine for water. Caffeine and alcohol act as diuretic beverages and can cause you to lose water through increased urination.

Once you start exercising, drink water throughout your workout. Keep a bottle of water with you and take frequent water breaks. Don't underestimate the amount of fluids lost from perspiration. During an hour of vigorous exercise, people sweat out approximately a quart of water.

Start and end your day with water. Your body loses water while you sleep, so drink a serving before bed and again when you wake up.Cool water is the best fluid for keeping hydrated when it's warm outside.

Cool water is absorbed much more quickly than warm fluids and may help to cool off your overheated body. If you're going to be away from home or outdoors,

Make sure you keep a bottle of water close by.Make sure children drink enough water. Children need water to balance their intake of other beverages - especially during activities.

Source: Nutrition Information Center at The Rockefeller University and the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA)

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Interesting Facts About Water

Whether you're talking around the "water-cooler" or looking for some fun topics to discuss during your water tasting - here are some interesting facts about water.

About 70 percent of the Earth is covered by water.  But more than just the oceans, water also exists in the air as vapor, in the ground as moisture and in aquifers, glaciers, lakes and (sadly) as runoff from municipalities.  But, interestingly, there is no "new" water.  Water on planet Earth is constantly recycled due to what is known as the "water cycle".  Our planet's supply is constantly moving from sea, to clouds, to rain, to earth and back again.

In the United States , we use more than 400 billion gallons per day of both surface and ground water.  To fully measure just how much water there is on the planet - consider these numbers:

The total water supply of the planet earth is estimated at 326 million cubic miles.  One cubic mile of water equals more than one trillion gallons.

It's estimated that 3,100 cubic miles of water (mostly vapor) is in the planet's atmosphere at any one time.  To answer the inevitable question - if it all rained at once - the Earth would be covered in only 1 inch of water.

The continental United States recieves anywhere from 3.5 to 4 cubic miles of precipitation each day.  For those of you still counting thats 12 Trillion gallons of water per day.

If all of the planet's water was poured in the United States , it would cover all the land in an ocean with a depth of 90 miles.

Finally, of the more than 2,000,000 cubic miles of fresh water that is stored in the Earth - most of it is within one-half mile of the surface.

Contrast that with the 60,000 cubic miles of water stored as fresh water in lakes, inland seas, and rivers.  And, if you really want to find fresh water, the most is stored in the 7,000,000 cubic miles of water found in glaciers and icecaps, mainly in the polar regions and in Greenland .

Water is the most universal solvent on the planet.  Even more than a substance such as sulphuric acid. Although sulfuric acid might be able to dissolve a car more quickly, water can dissolve more substances than any other liquid. 

Water is the only natural substance that is found in all three states -- liquid, solid (ice), and gas (steam).

And, finally, as you choose whether you're going to drink municipal tap water, or fine bottled water, consider that you are what you drink.  Up to 60 percent of the human body is water.


Only three percent of the water on Earth is freshwater, and only 1 percent is available for human consumption. 

There are over 1 million miles of water pipelines and aqua ducts in the U.S. and Canada – enough to circle the globe 40 times. 

There are over 59,000 community public water systems in the U.S. 

Community water systems process over 35 billion gallons of water daily. 

Americans drink more than 1 billion gallons of water per year. 

Groundwater makes up 95% of the fresh water resources in the U.S. 

52% of the people in the U.S. use ground water for drinking water. 

Once ground water is polluted it may remain that way for several thousands of years. 

Each day the sun evaporates 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) tons of water. 

Water is the only substance on earth naturally found in the three true element forms: solids, liquid, and gas. 

Running the tap waiting for water to get hot or cold can waste 5 gallons of water every minute. 

You could survive about a month without food, but only 5 to 7 days without water. 

Two-thirds of the water used in an average home is used in the bathroom. 

On average, each person uses 2 gallons of water to brush his or her teeth each day. 

A leaking faucet can waste up to 100 gallons of water a day. 

One gallon of gasoline can contaminate approximately 750,000 gallons of water. 

You can help prevent pollution of drinking water sources by correctly disposing of the chemical products you use in your home. Call the Public Works office at 318-242-7703 to find out more about Household Hazardous Waste Collection day.

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Water & Aged Home Plumbing

Lead-contaminated drinking water is most often a problem in homes that are either very old or very new. Up through the early 1900s, it was common practice to use lead pipes for interior plumbing. Also lead piping was often used for the service connections that join residences to public water supplies. Copper pipes have replaced lead pipes in most residential plumbing. However, the use of lead solder with copper pipes is widespread. Experts regard this lead solder as the major cause of lead contamination of household water in U.S. homes today. Lead concentrations in drinking water can be also be elevated if your home has faucets or fittings of brass which contains some lead. The most common cause of lead getting into drinking water is corrosion, a reaction between the water and the lead pipes or lead solder. Lead can leach into the water from the joints or from lead pipes. Dissolved oxygen, low pH (acidity), and low mineral content in water are common causes of corrosion. One factor that increases corrosion is the practice of grounding electrical equipment, such as telephones, to water pipes. Any electric current traveling through the ground wire will accelerate the corrosion of lead in the pipes. Most well and city water does not usually contain lead. Water can pick up lead inside the home from household plumbing that is made with lead materials. The only way to know if there is lead in drinking water is to have it tested. Contact the local health department or the water supplier to find out how to get the water tested.

New brass faucets and fittings can also leach lead, even though they are "lead-free". Scientific data indicate that the newer the home, the greater the risk of lead contamination. Lead concentrations decrease as a building ages. This is because, as time passes, mineral deposits form a coating on the inside of the pipes (if the water is not corrosive). This coating insulates the water from the solder. But, during the first five years, before the coating forms, water is in direct contact with the lead. More likely than not, water in buildings less than five years old has high concentrations of lead contamination.

Because of similar chemical properties, the body confuses lead with calcium when ingested and incorporates it into the bone marrow, nerve tissue, brain, and kidneys. The body never decomposes the lead into another, more easily tolerated substance, because lead is an element.

In children, symptoms of lead poisoning can include headaches, irritability, abdominal pain, vomiting, anemia, weight loss, poor attention span, noticeable learning difficulty, slowed speech development, and hyperactivity. In adults, symptoms of lead poisoning can include pain, numbness or tingling of the extremities, muscular weakness, headache, abdominal pain, memory loss, unsteady gait, pale skin, weight loss, vomiting, irritability, and anemia. Although adults are susceptible to the toxic effects of lead, children are at high risk due to the nature of a child's activities that involve the introduction of non-food items into their bodies. Lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable public health problems related to children today.

At low concentration lead can adversely affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys. Blood lead concentrations as low as 10 ug/dl can impair mental and physical development. Lead at high concentrations (80 ug/dl or above) can cause convulsions, coma, and death. The effects of lead exposure on unborn and young children can be severe. The effects of lead poisoning in children include reading and learning disabilities, delays in physical and mental development, shortened attention span, speech and language handicaps, lowered IQ, neurological deficits, behavior problems, mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. Children are more vulnerable to lead exposure than adults since lead is more easily absorbed into growing bodies, and the tissues of small children are more sensitive to the damaging effects of lead. Children may have higher exposures since they are more likely to get lead dust on their hands and then put their fingers or other lead-contaminated objects into their mouths. If you suspect lead poisoning, consult your physician immediately.


Have you home-inspected for lead piping? If you suspect your water contains lead have it tested by a qualified laboratory. Lead piping should be removed. Flush your pipes before drinking. Anytime the water in a particular faucet has not been used for six hours or longer, flush your cold water pipes by running water until it becomes as cold as it will get. The more time water has been sitting in your home's pipes, the more lead it may contain.


Leave lead-based paint undisturbed if it is in good condition. Do not sand or burn off paint that may contain lead. Individuals have been poisoned by scraping or sanding lead paint because these activities generate large amounts of lead dust. Do not burn painted wood since it may contain lead. Do not remove lead pain yourself. Hire a qualified lead-abatement contractor to remove contamination. Keep areas were lead dust occurs (i.e. windowsills) clean and dust-free.

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Mercury Pollution

Mercury is ubiquitous in the environment. Spewing from volcanoes, evaporating off bodies of water, and rising as gas from the Earth's crust, the poisonous, metallic element floats in the air as vapor or binds to particles. Eventually it falls to the Earth to settle in sediment, oceans, and lakes, or reenters the atmosphere by evaporation. The "hand of man" has contributed to this outpouring as well. Since the late 18th century and the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, mercury has been used in products such as light bulbs, batteries, thermometers and barometers, pesticides, and paint. It is released from the burning of fossil fuels in municipal and hospital incinerators, coal combusting power plants, lead smelters, and chlorine producers. Because it can dissolve metals, and particularly because it can separate gold from impurities, it has long been used heavily in mining, and is found in tailings around the world. Even crematoria contribute mercury to the environment as mercury is released when dental amalgams melt.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 10,000 tons of mercury are released worldwide from both natural and manmade sources each year. Initially, it floats into the atmosphere, mostly in the form of mercury vapor (Hg). Eventually, rainwater washes it back down to the Earth, where the process is repeated in what is described as a "ping-pong" effect. As with any of the chemical elements, mercury exists as part of the Earth. As an element, it's not going to be created or destroyed, but its chemical form can always change. Over time, the ultimate sink for mercury is in the sediments of the Earth's oceans and lakes. There, microorganisms convert the inorganic mercury to methyl mercury, the form that is potentially harmful to humans.

Methylmercury is produced by methanogenic (TK) bacteria (that produce methane), some of the oldest living cells known, says Tom Clarkson, a toxicologist at the University of Rochester . When mercury is methylated through ingestion by microorganisms, a carbon atom is added on to the mercury atom. This additional atom is what changes mercury's properties, allowing it to be readily accumulated in fish. Once released from microorganisms, methylmercury rapidly diffuses, binding to proteins in aquatic biota. From there it marches up the food chain in a process known as biomagnification. Simply put, smaller fish absorb the methylmercury from water as it passes over their gills and as they feed on methylmercury-tainted flora and fauna. In turn, these fish are eaten by bigger fish, which is why the highest concentrations of methylmercury are found in fish at the top of the aquatic food chain. Large, predatory species like tuna, swordfish, and shark in ocean waters and trout, pike, walleye, and bass in fresh waters contain more methylmercury in their tissues than smaller, nonpredatory fish. Also, the older the fish, the more time.

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Corrosion by Natural Waters

Abundant supplies of fresh water are essential to industrial development. Enormous quantities are required for cooling of products and equipment, for process needs, for boiler feed and for sanitary and potable water. It was estimated, in 1980, that the water requirements for industry in the USA approximated 525 billion liters per day. A substantial quantity of this water was reused. The intake of "new" water was estimated to be about 140 billion liters daily. If this water was pure and contained no contaminants, there would be little need for water conditioning or water treatment.

The fast-growing demand for clean, fresh water coupled with the need to protect and enhance the environment, has made many areas of the world vulnerable to water shortages for various human uses.

As they interact with the electricity industry, these uses encompass agricultural irrigation, thermoelectric generation, municipal water and wastewater treatment and distribution, and industrial processes. The dependence of electricity supply and demand on water availability can impede the sustainability of economic growth, adversely affect future growth in electricity demand, cause shortages in current supplies of electricity, and have direct impact on power system planning and expansion.

Water possesses several unique properties, one being its ability to dissolve to some degree every substance occurring on the earth's crust and in the atmosphere. Because of this solvent property, water typically contains a variety of impurities. These impurities are a source of potential trouble through deposition of the impurities in water lines, boiler tubes and on products which are contacted by it.

Dissolved oxygen, the principal gas present in water, is responsible for costly replacement of piping and equipment by corrosive attack on metals with which it comes in contact. The origin of all water supply is moisture that has been evaporated from land masses and oceans and subsequently precipitated from the atmosphere. Depending on weather conditions, this may fall in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail. As it falls, this precipitation contacts gases comprising the atmosphere and suspended particulates in the form of dust, industrial smoke and fumes, and volcanic dust and gases.

According to the American Waterworks Association (AWWA) industry database, there is approximately 1,483,000 km of municipal water piping in the United States . This number is not exact, since most water utilities do not have complete records of their piping system. The sewer system consists of approximately 16,400 publicly owned treatment facilities releasing some 155 million m3 (41 billion gallons) of wastewater per day (1995). The total annual direct cost of corrosion for the nation's drinking water and sewer systems was estimated at $36.0 billion. This cost was contributed to by the cost of replacing aging infrastructure, the cost of unaccounted-for water through leaks, the cost of corrosion inhibitors, the cost of internal mortar linings, and the cost of external coatings and cathodic protection.

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Corrosion Dissolved Mineral Salts

The principal ions found in water are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride and nitrate. A few parts per million of iron or manganese may sometimes be present and there may be traces of potassium salts, whose behavior is very similar to that of sodium salts. From the corrosion point of view the small quantities of other acid radicals present, e.g. nitrite, phosphate, iodide, bromide and fluoride generally have little significance. Larger concentrations of some of these ions, notably nitrite and phosphate, may act as corrosion inhibitors, but the small quantities present in natural waters will usually have little effect.

Chlorides have probably received the most study in relation to their effect on corrosion. Like other ions, they increase the electrical conductivity of the water so that the flow of corrosion currents will be facilitated. They also reduce the effectiveness of natural protective films, which may be permeable to small ions.

Nitrate is very similar in its effects to chloride but is usually present in much smaller concentrations. Sulfate in general appears to behave very similarly, at least on carbon steel materials. In practice, high sulfate waters may attack concrete, and the performance of some inhibitors appears to be adversely affected by the presence of sulfate. Sulfates have also a special role in bacterial corrosion under anaerobic conditions.

Another mineral constituent of water is silica, present both as a colloidal suspension and dissolved in the form of silicates. The concentration varies very widely and, as silicates are sometimes applied as corrosion inhibitors, it might be thought that the silica content would affect the corrosive properties of a water. In general, the effect appears to be trivial; the fact that silicate inhibitors are used in waters with a high initial silica content suggests that the form in which silica is present is important.

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Cryptosporidium | Gardia


In recent years Cryptosporidium has become regarded as the most important waterborne human pathogen in developed countries. Over 30 outbreaks associated with drinking water have been reported in North America and Britain with the largest infecting an estimated 403,000 people (Mackenzie et al., 1994). Although the importance of this organism has been established there are large gaps in knowledge particularly in association with testing water for the presence of human infectious species.

Cryptosporidium is an obligate parasite with a complex life cycle involving intracellular development in the gut wall, with sexual and asexual reproduction. Thick-walled oocysts, shed in faeces, are responsible for transmission. Concentrations of oocysts as high as 4,000 per litre in raw sewage and 5,800 per litre in surface water have been reported. Oocysts are robust and can survive for weeks to months in fresh water.

There are a number of species of Cryptosporidium with C. parvam identified as the cause of disease in humans ( Cryptosporidium ). C. parvum infections have been identified in a wide range of mammals but transmission to humans has only been shown to occur from a few host species. Cattle and sheep, particularly young animals, and human waste have been identified as important sources of human infections. It has been reported that infected calves can excrete up to 10 billion oocysts in one day. Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to inadequate or faulty treatment and contamination by human or livestock (particularly cattle) waste.

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Prevention of Contamination of Drinking Water In sickness and Health

Due to their small size, Cryptosporidium oocsysts (4-6µm) can challenge removal by granular media-based filtration processes. However, a well-designed and operated filter system with a 1 micron block cartridge can provide a high level of removal. In a world where copies or cheap standards are abundant, it is vital when purchasing a water filter to look for AS 3497 and polyethelene housings tested to 770 KPA only.

Health Considerations

Infection of normally healthy people by Cryptosporidium can result in self-limiting diarrhea that usually resolves within a week but can last for a month or more. Illness varies according to age and immune status and infections in severely immunocompromised people can be life threatening (Bouchier, 1998; CDR1999 ).

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Although known as a human parasite for 200 years Giardia has only been regarded seriously as an agent of disease since the 1960's and has been identified as an important waterborne pathogen. Giardia has been associated with many outbreaks of illness associated with drinking water particularly in North America . Although the importance of the organism has been established there are large gaps in knowledge particularly in association with testing water for the presence of human infectious species.

Giardia has a relatively simple live cycle involving two stages, a flagellate which multiplies in the intestine and an infective thick-walled cyst which is shed intermittently but in large numbers in faeces. Concentrations of cysts as high as 88,000 per litre in raw sewage and 240 per litre in surface water have been reported ( Wallis et al., 1996 ). Cysts are robust and can survive for weeks to months in fresh water.

Consumption of contaminated drinking water is only one of several mechanisms by which transmission (faecaloral) can occur. Recreational waters, including swimming pools, are also emerging as an important source of Giardia s. However, excluding outbreaks the most likely route of transmission is by direct contact with a human carirer. Transmission of Giardia can also occur by contact with infected animals and occasionally through contaminated food.

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Prevention of Contamination of Drinking Water Health Considerations

Giardia cysts are more resistant than enteric bacteria to chlorine but they are not as resistant as Cryptosporidium . The time required for a 90% (1 log 10 ) kill at 1mg/L free chlorine is of the order of 25-35 minutes. Other disinfectants such as ozone are more effective. The USEPA has published CT tables specifying chlorine considerations (C) and contact times (T) required to inactivate Giardia cysts over a range of conditions ( USEPA, 1999 ). In addition CT tables were provided for chloramines, ozone and chlorine dioxide. Ensuring that disinfectant concentrations and contact times are at all times greater than the values specified in the CT tables provides a practical means of ensuring that Giardia cysts are inactivated and are not a threat to public health.

The USEPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards prescribe comprehensive treatment (including filtration and disinfection) of most surface waters to protect drinking water from contamination by Giardia . Operational procedures in water treatment plants should be carefully examined where Giardia cysts are suspected or known to be present in the raw water to ensure that optimum removal is achieved and maintatined. Filtration plants should be operated by trained and skilled personnel.

The integrity of distribution systems should be maintained. The use of unroofed treated water storages within distribution systems should be avoided as these could allow the entry of contamination from birds an small animals. Backflow prevention policies should be applied and faults and bust mains should be repaired in a manner that will prevent ingress of contamination.

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Health conciderations

Infection by Giardia may reduce absorption of nutrients and cause diarrhoea. In most cases illness is self-limiting but in some cases chronic infection with intermittent diarrhoea can occur. Specific treatments are available.

Note: Any icident of concern that leads to the testing of distribution systems for Giardia should be notified immediately to the relevant health authority. If Giardia is detected in finished water, the relevant health authority should be notified immeadiately.

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In sickness and Health

 Dirty water is the cause of numerous diseases, but improving hygiene and sanitation are equally important in order to curb water-related diseases.


Diseases of contaminationDiseases of contamination There are 4 billion cases of diarrhoea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths – that's a death every 14 seconds. 1 Most diarrhoeal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhoea by 35%. 2
Insect-related diseasesInsect-related diseases Malaria, borne by water-breeding mosquitoes, is the biggest killer, causing1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease. 1 ParasitesParasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the Majority World population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year. After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea- worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored. 1, 3

Needing and Getting

 The recommended basic water requirement per person per day is 50 litres. But people can get by with about 30 litres: 5 litres for drinking and cooking and another 25 to maintain hygiene. The reality for millions comes nowhere near.

Tapping groundwater

 Some 97% of liquid freshwater is stored underground in aquifers. People, especially in rural areas, are increasingly dependent on groundwater – up to 2 billion people, a third of the world's population, rely on it. 1

Drinking groundwater.


% of Dranking water

From Ground water  

People  served (Million)


Asia-Pacific                   32                      1000to1200           
Europe 75 200 to 500
Latin America 29 150
Australia States  51 135
Africa no data  3
World   1500 to 2000

Aquifers are most severely depleted in parts of India , China , the US , North Africa and the Middle East . It can take centuries for aquifers to recharge, so the world is currently running a groundwater overdraft of 200 billion cubic metres a year.
Pollution is a major problem, resulting from human and farm animal waste, naturally occurring toxins, as well as the over 10 million different synthetic chemicals in use today.

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Fun Facts About Water

Water has many purposes throughout the world, aside from human consumption and purposes related to that. With 70 percent of the earth's surface covered with water, it makes water the most common substance on earth. There are 326 million

cubic miles of water on earth. Without water, there could be no life. Every living thing needs water to live, and every living thing is made of at least some water. For example, a chicken is about three-fourths water, and a pineapple is about four-fifths water. And as much as it is a part of each living thing, it has many uses inside and outside the home. It can irrigate dry farmlands in order to grow crops. (The United States uses 100 billion gallons of water for irrigation of crops per day.) We can cook with it, bathe with it, and use it to carry away wastes. On average, a human uses 70 gallons of water per day.

Water is very necessary to human life, and that fact is reinforced by the fact that humans take in over 16,000 gallons of water during their lifetimes, with an average 2.5 quarts per day. Water carries out life processes in everything, carrying out biological reactions and aiding with digestion of other nutrients.

The world's demand for water is constantly increasing, with no end in sight. Experts speculate that by the year 2000, the world s need for water will double from what it was in the 1980s. And since only 3 percent of the water on earth is freshwater, and 97 percent of the water is trapped in glaciers, most of the water on earth is not easily available.

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Shelf Life of Bottled Water 

 Q: How long is a bottle of water good if it remains sealed?       

A: In the United States bottled water's shelf life is date stamped for two years. It should be stored in a dark, cool, dry area away from any solvents or chemicals. I have tasted a bottle of Mountain Valley that was bottled several decades ago and the seal (in this case a metal cap) was still intact. The water was excellent, and except for some mineral crystals at the bottom on the glass, was identical to a fresh bottle of Mountain Valley . The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) further adds: 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which regulates the quality and safety of bottled water, has neither set nor suggested any limitation to the shelf life of bottled water.You may notice that most bottled water containers sold at retail bear a two-year expiration date. This acts as a lot number and is for stock rotation purposes. It does not mean the product is substandard after that date. Thus, bottled water purchased in bulk is good indefinitely if stored appropriately. Appropriately means unopened in a cool, dry place away from odors and toxic substances.For those yearning for a more technical explanation, it is thus: Bottled water is considered to be of virtually no significant nutritional value. Therefore, unlike milk, fish or poultry, bottled water is not an adequate substrate for pathogens responsible for the majority of food-borne illnesses. In that regard, IBWA's general position is that as long as bottled water is packaged in accordance with FDA processing and good manufacturing practices, 21 CFR, Part 129, and meets the FDA quality standard provisions as outlined in 21 CFR, Part 165, the product's shelf life should remain intact for an indefinite period provided that product storage and other post-packaging and handling practices do not adulterate or deleteriously affect the finished product. Whew! 

By the way, the size of the container is irrelevant. Bottled water is a federally regulated pure food product packaged and distributed in individually coded discrete sanitary containers. It adheres to a strict regimen of testing and analysis. IBWA members must also adhere to standards tougher than the FDA requirements and must also submit to annual surprise inspections by an independent third party inspection organization (National Sanitation Foundation/NSF International).  Source: Bottled Water Web.com

October   2007       

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Comfort Factor

Did you know water plays an important role in cushioning your joints and protecting your body organs and tissues? It is also important for regulating body temperature and helps keep tissues such as your mouth, eyes and nose moist.

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Dehydration Detection: Under normal dietary, physical and environmental conditions, thirst is our body's way of signaling us to drink more and stay hydrated. However, when the body loses too much water too quickly, e.g., excessive sweating, then thirst can be one of the early signs of dehydration.

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Plain Water Doesn't Tickle Your Fancy:

 If you are looking for a beverage alternative without all the calories, and for those who find water consumption boring or difficult, there are delicious new alternatives such as Fruit 2 O - naturally flavored water with Zero calories, Zero grams of carbohydrate and Zero grams of sugar per serving.

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Water Game Plan:

  For road trips, stock up on single serve portable bottles of water; develop habits such as drinking a glass of water before each meal and leaving a pitcher of water on the table; and create a water schedule, especially important for kids who often don't stop to hydrate.

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Honolulu Company Selling Deep Seawater As Exotic Ingredient

HONOLULU -- A crew of former crab fishermen from Alaska has found a new livelihood in warmer and less dangerous waters off Hawaii , harvesting water from 3,000 feet below the surface to use in everything from beer to face creams.
The crew was hired by Deep Ocean Hawaii , a Honolulu-based company that is desalinating deep seawater aboard its vessel off Oahu and then marketing it as an ingredient free of impurities.

The company projects it can become a $50-million business in two years, eventually pumping 500,000 gallons of fresh deep seawater a day. It also hopes to develop its shipboard technology as an emergency source for drinking water.
In just a few years, deep seawater already has become Hawaii 's biggest foreign export, with four other businesses shipping $37-million worth of bottled seawater a year, mostly for sale in Japan for up to $5 a bottle.

DOHawaii is the first company that will be exporting the Hawaii water in giant bladders for use in other products, rather than by the bottle.

"We're making ingredients, not the finished product," said Rudy Ahrens, chief executive of DSH International Inc., which operates as DOHawaii. "But this is going to add value to products all over the world.

The benefits and purity of any bottled water over treated tap water have been debated for years as the bottled water industry has expanded globally, but desalinated Hawaii deep seawater offers a special appeal.

It is touted by DOHawaii and other companies as a commodity that is thousands of years old, protected from modern impurities and pollution by a layer of the ocean which separates the warm surface water from colder water near the bottom.

Unlike water found above the thermocline layer, deep seawater doesn't contain hormones, pollution, pathogens or other compounds as the water has slowlymigrated from the Arctic, said Hans Krock, professor emeritus in ocean engineering at the University of Hawaii and president of OCEES International Inc., a renewable energy consulting company.

"It's basically water that's been isolated from human influences," said Krock, who also advises and has a small ownership share in DOHawaii.

Independent research confirms deep seawater is more pristine and isolated from chemicals and other human-caused impurities found near the surface of the ocean, said Daniel Repeta, a senior scientist with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts .

But the water could still be affected by materials dropped into the ocean, said Repeta, who has independently studied the deep water off the Big Island .

DOHawaii's 144-foot Spirit of the North, anchored more than three miles off the west coast of Oahu recently, started filling 5,200-gallon bladders installed in 20-foot-cargo containers. Current production is at 80,000 gallons of fresh water a day.

Much of the crew of the ship has spent the past 25 years in Alaska fishing for king crab, so development of the technology to harvest the water was a new challenge, said Ken Ostebo, president of DOHawaii's maritime operation.
"The idea of deep ocean water is simple, but being able to get it is the key," Ostebo said.

DOHawaii is entering a market developed by Koyo USA Corp. and other companies based on the Big Island .
DOHawaii is cashing in on an unlimited resource and the reputation the islands have as an exotic, isolated spot surrounded by relatively clear and clean waters.

Ahrens said beer companies want to develop "Hawaiian deep-ocean brews" and health and beauty businesses are searching for purer water for cleansers, face creams and other products. Companies producing sauces and juices and those packaging products such as tuna have also shown interest, and some local hotels plan to use the water in their spas, he said.

The company has inked contracts with a bottling company in Taiwan and with Deep Ocean Enterprise, which creates packaging for companies wanting to sell bottled water.

DOHawaii is also in talks with a major U.S. beer company and another brewery in Japan , cosmetic companies on the mainland and in Europe , as well as hotels, said Ahrens, who has a background as a merchant banker.

After researching other methods for nearly four years, DOHawaii developed a new system which lowers a hose into the ocean and then pumps it onto a moored boat. The water is then desalinated through reverse osmosis, packaged in the cargo containers and lifted onto a barge, which travels back and forth to the shore.

On the Big Island , the state, as a commercial venture, pumps the water using a 3,000 foot pipeline and then transports it to the companies, which do the desalination, filtering, bottling and packaging.

Four companies already selling the water, and other enterprises are planning to enter the market, said Ron Baird, chief executive officer of the National Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority. A Maui company uses that water to make a vodka called Ocean.

Ahrens recruited retired veteran Air Force pilot Rich Treadway to serve as his chief operating officer after meeting him during a flight from Honolulu to Los Angeles . Treadway said he hopes to develop a market with the military, which spends millions of dollars to get water to troops in desert areas.

Ahrens said a future focus of the company will be on emergency relief.

Since water supplies are often damaged or contaminated in the wake of hurricanes, tornadoes and other natural disasters, DOHawaii hopes to sell governments the technology to pump, treat and package huge quantities of offshore water on short notice.

The company has a patent pending on its process, which Ahrens says also could play a role in an era of major global water disputes.

"Water has become a commodity of conflict," Ahrens said. "I mean without oil you can't drive, but without water you die."

July 2007          U.S. Water News   

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Water and Source of Problems

Issue Source(s) Associated Problems in Creeks


  •  SewagePollution


  •  sewer overflows
  •  pathogens including bacteria (eg. E.coli) and protozoa (eg. Cryptosporidium and Giardia) may be released into creeks, posing a risk to human and animal health
  •  leakage from mains and private sewer lines
  •  nutrients
  •  chemicals such as detergent
  •  An increase in total dissolved solids
  •   including salt
  •  endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be released in sewage, with the potential to affect important functions in the human body
  •  Oils, grease and other chemicals
  •   industry
  •   to aquatic life, destroys food chain
  •  motor vehicle spoor 
  •  kills plants and animals
  •   disposal of domestic waste stoxic
  •  chemicals take a long time to break down
  •  Nutrients
  •  fertilizer run-off
  •   growth of algae and weeds leading to low oxygen levels
  •  sewer overflow
  •  changes to food chain
  •  storm water
  •  harmful to aquatic
  •  Detergents
  •  car washing
  •  adds nutrients
  •  sewer overflows
  •  increases turbidity of water
  •  storm water run-off
  •  Litter and rubbish
  •  shopping centres
  •  unsigtly
  •  domestic waste
  •  add chemical to streem
  •  illegal dumping
  •  harmful to animal
  •  wind


  •  encourage to weed


  •  storm water run-off
  •  road
  •  loss of native flora and fauna
  •   weed
  •  dumped rubbish
  •  changed nutrient cycling
  •  upstream infestation
  •  changed light conditions
  •  birds and wind
  •  changed stream dynamics and sedimentation
  •  storm water
  •  Sediment
  •  development sites
  •  increased turbidity
  •  erosion
  •  in-filling of creek pool
  •  storm water  run-of
  •  weed growth
  •  Pesticides
  •  stormwater run-off
  •  toxic to aquatic life
  •  illegal dumping
  •  long persistence in sediments


  • Changes to         
  • creek flow



  •  spray drift
  • reduced vegetation
  • and increased
  • paved and impermeable
  • surfaces in urban
  • area                      



  • harmful to human health
  • erosion
  • steepens creek channel
  • widened creeks and damaged creekline vegetation and sedimentation downstream

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Iodine is a very important element for the regulation of the fluid content of the body. Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland to manufacture thyroxin, its primary hormone.* It seems that thyroxin is the element that stimulates the cells to manufacture all the pump proteins that regulate the sodium, potassium, and other mineral balances outside and inside the cells, and that generate energy in the process. With the movement of sodium and potassium across the cell membrane, not only will water also move to balance the osmotic pressure in and out of the cell, but the other mineral-transferring pumps will take their cue and regulate the magnesium, potassium and calcium levels of the cell interior as well. 

Before salt was iodized, many people suffered from iodine deficiency and lumpy thyroid gland enlargement in their necks, known as thyroid goiter. One of the major complications of iodine deficiency is the collection of hard-to-move and inelastic swelling and edema, known as myxedema. Other complications are dry skin, loss of hair and memory, tiredness, sleepiness and loss of muscle tissue. As you can see, iodine is vital for good health and good fluid balance. 

*Much to my regret*, *I discovered that unrefined sea salt does not have enough iodine. *Thinking that sea salt has many important trace elements, I switched to using only sea salt and was not diligent in taking foods and multivitamins that would provide my body with the iodine it needs. My second mistake was that being so busy with sharing my medical breakthrough on water metabolism of the body with people that I was not alert to my own health problems. I developed all the early stages of iodine deficiency, but no goiter in my neck. However, I developed an uncomfortable feeling in my chest and also shortness of breath. 

A high-resolution CT scan of my chest revealed a massive thyroid goiter in my chest that was pressing on my trachea, to the point of deforming it. This was three months ago. I adjusted my iodine intake in the form of dried kelp or as part of the composition of the one-a-day multivitamin that I now take religiously. As a result, my breathing problem has cleared, my edema has cleared, I am no longer lethargic, and my energy level has increased; my sleep has normalized; my blood pressure is back to the normal range. I now feel much healthier and more confident and have lost fifteen pounds of the swelling that I had amassed. All these improvements have been made possible because of the vital role of simple iodine in the physiology of the body and adjustment to my intake of vital minerals mentioned above. You see, even doctors get sick, and that is how we learn*. A word of caution: Do not overdo iodine intake. It could cause other problems.*

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Studies have shown that high blood pressure can be prevented and lowered by consuming a diet high in calcium, and surprisingly, a diet high in salt. Using calcium is far more effective with the essential use of salt. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of calcium is 800 mg, and by meeting the RDA along with a diet high in salt, we will not raise, but lower our blood pressure. This is responsible for some of the lowest blood pressures in our society. Studies have shown that people who use the saltshaker more frequently and consume salty snack foods tend to have lower blood pressures than those who do not use salt with such frequency. This may also come as a shock, but low salt diets are associated with increases in blood pressure, and this is consistent with data from the U.S. clinical sites participating in the INTERSALT Study. This study found that the highest blood pressures were found in those with the lowest salt excretion in their urine. If we want to lower our blood pressure and prevent high blood pressure, we must use salt as well as calcium, as higher blood pressures were noted in the small percentage of the population eating high-salt low-calcium diets (which lessened the potassium, magnesium, and phosphorous). People who consumed large amounts of salt and had high blood pressure lowered their blood pressure by using calcium. The same thing happened for those who were using a lot of calcium and had high blood pressure; their blood pressure lowered when they started using salt. All of these studies show that calcium's effect on blood pressure is most visible in those consuming at least the RDA of salt. Therefore, it makes sense for doctors to make sure that patients who have or are at risk of high blood pressure consume enough salt and calcium daily. I hope this information will provide Americans with a more attractive and nutritional approach to lowering their blood pressure.

  • Dr. Michael Alderman, Chairman of Epidemiology at Albert Einstein Medical School and President of the American Hypertension Society says, “The lower the sodium, the worse off you are.



  • McCarron D. A., Pingree P.A., Robin R. I., Gaucher S. M., Moltich M., Krutzik S. “Enhanced Parathyroid Function is Essential to Hypertension: A Homeostatic Response to a Urinary Calcium Leak.
  • ”Kaplan N. M. “Non-Drug Treatment of Hypertension.” Am Intern Med. 1985; 102: 359-73.
  • McNeely G. R., Battarbee H. D. “High-Sodium, Low-Potassium Environment and Hypertension.” Ann J. Cardiology 1976; 38: 768-85.
  • Weinberger M. H., Miller J. Z., Luft F. C., Grim C. E., Fineberg N. S. “Definitions and Characteristics of Sodium Sensitivity and Blood Pressure Resistance.” Hypertension 1986; 8 (suppl II): II – 127-34.“Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors.” I. Blood Pressure Correlates: United States, 1971-1975, Hyattsville MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1983.


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Higher Salt Intake Tied to Longevity

Debate over the health effects of dietary salt continues, with a new study suggesting that those who eat lots of salt live longer than those who avoid it.  Researchers discovered that those 25% of study subjects consuming the lowest amounts of dietary salt actually had a higher risk of death (over 23 deaths per 1,000 person-years) over the study period compared with the 24% who consumed the highest amounts of salt (just 19 deaths per 1,000 person-years).  But the researchers stress that any connections between salt and longevity need to “be considered in the total dietary context.”  For example, they explain that high salt intake may simply be a “marker” for specific types of diets that might in a much broader sense positively influence overall longevity.

The Lancet, March 14, 1998 ; 351:781-785

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Salt Intake is Vital

Salt is a vital substance for the survival of all living creatures, particularly humans. Water and salt regulate the water content of the body. Water itself regulates the water content of the interior of the cell by working its way into all of the cells it reaches. It has to get there to cleanse and extract the toxic wastes of cell metabolisms. Salt forces some water to stay outside the cells. It balances the amount of water that stays outside the cells. There are two oceans of water in the body; one ocean is held inside the cells of the body, and the other ocean is held outside the cells. Good health depends on a most delicate balance between the volume of these oceans, and this balance is achieved by salt - unrefined salt. See number 21 below .

When water is available to get inside the cells freely, it is filtered from the outside salty ocean and injected into the cells that are being overworked despite their water shortage. This is the reason why in severe dehydration we develop an edema and retain water. The design of our bodies is such that the extent of the ocean of water outside the cells is expanded to have the extra water available for filtration and emergency injection into vital cells. The brain commands an increase in salt and water retention by the kidneys. This is how we get an edema when we don't drink enough water.

Initially, the process of water filtration and its delivery into the cells is more efficient at night when the body is horizontal. The collected water, that mostly pools in the legs, does not have to fight the force of gravity to get onto the blood circulation. If reliance of this process of emergency hydration of some cells continues for long, the lungs begin to get waterlogged at night, and breathing becomes difficult. The person needs more pillows to sit upright to sleep. This condition is the consequence of dehydration. However, you might overload the system by drinking too much water at the beginning. Increases in water intake must be slow and spread out until urine production begins to increase at the same rate that you drink water.

When we drink enough water to pass clear urine, we also pass out a lot of the salt that was held back. This is how we can get rid of edema fluid in the body; by drinking more water. Not diuretics, but more water!! In people who have an extensive edema and show signs of their heart beginning to have irregular or very rapid beats with least effort, the increase in water intake should be gradual and spaced out, but not withheld from the body. Naturally, salt intake should be limited for two or three days because the body is still in an overdrive mode to retain it. Once the edema has cleared up, salt should not be withheld from the body.

Salt has many other functions than just regulating the water content of the body. Here are some of the more vital functions of salt in the body:

1. Salt is most effective in stabilizing irregular heartbeats and, contrary to the misconception that it causes high blood pressure, it is actually essential for the regulation of blood pressure - in conjunction with water. Naturally the proportions are critical.   

2. Salt is vital to the extraction of excess acidity from the cells in the body, particularly the brain cells.

3. Salt is vital for balancing the sugar levels in the blood; a needed element in diabetics.

4. Salt is vital for the generation of hydroelectric energy in cells in the body. It is used for local power generation at the sites of energy need by the cells.

5. Salt is vital to the nerve cells' communication and information processing all the time that the brain cells work, from the moment of conception to death.

6. Salt is vital for absorption of food particles through the intestinal tract.

7. Salt is vital for the clearance of the lungs of mucus plugs and sticky phlegm, particularly in asthma and cystic fibrosis.

8. Salt is vital for clearing up catarrh and congestion of the sinuses.

9. Salt is a strong natural antihistamine.

10. Salt is essential for the prevention of muscle cramps.

11. Salt is vital to prevent excess saliva production to the point that it flows out of the mouth during sleep. Needing to constantly mop up excess saliva indicates salt shortage.

12. Salt is absolutely vital to making the structure of bones firm. Osteoporosis, in a major way, is a result of salt and water shortage in the body.

13. Salt is vital for sleep regulation. It is a natural hypnotic. 

14. Salt is a vitally needed element in the treatment of diabetics.

15. Salt on the tongue will stop persistent dry coughs.

16. Salt is vital for the prevention of gout and gouty arthritis.

17. Salt is vital for maintaining sexuality and libido.

18. Salt is vital for preventing varicose veins and spider veins on the legs and thighs.

19. Salt is vital to the communication and information processing nerve cells the entire time that the brain cells work - from the moment of conception to death.

20. Salt is vital for reducing a double chin. When the body is short of salt, it means the body really is short of water. The salivary glands sense the salt shortage and are obliged to produce more saliva to lubricate the act of chewing and swallowing and also to supply the stomach with water that it needs for breaking down foods. Circulation to the salivary glands increases and the blood vessels become "leaky" in order to supply the glands with water to manufacture saliva. The "leakiness" spills beyond the area of the glands themselves, causing increased bulk under the skin of the chin, the cheeks and into the neck.

21. Sea salt contains about 80 mineral elements that the body needs. Some of these elements are needed in trace amounts. Unrefined sea salt is a better choice of salt than other types of salt on the market. Ordinary table salt that is bought in the super markets has been stripped of its companion elements and contains additive elements such as aluminum silicate to keep it powdery and porous. Aluminum is a very toxic element in our nervous system. It is implicated as one of the primary causes of Alzheimer's disease.

22. Twenty-seven percent of the body's salt is in the bones. Osteoporosis results when the body needs more salt and takes it from the body. Bones are twenty-two percent water. Is it not obvious what happens to the bones when we're deficient in salt or water or both.

* The information on salt intake is taken from Dr. Batmanghelidj's book, "Water: Rx for a Healthier Pain-Free Life".

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Low-Salt Diet a Risk?

London , March 12 - A low-salt diet may not be so healthy after all. Defying a generation of health advice, a controversial new study concludes that the less salt people eat, the higher their risk of untimely death. 

The study, led by Dr. Michael Alderman, chairman of epidemiology at Albert Einstein School ; of Medicine in New York and president of the American Society of Hypertension, suggests the government should consider suspending it's recommendation that people restrict the amount of salt they eat.

"The lower the sodium, the worse off you are," Alderman said. "There's an association. Is it the cause? I don't know. Any way you slice it, that's not an argument for eating a low sodium diet.

Source : Unconventional Wisdom  by Emma Ross  The Associated Press

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Top Essentials of Life

1. Oxygen    2. Water    3. Salt    4. Potassium    5. Exercise

FACT - No one can live without these. Mainstream medicine too often ignores 2 & 3 in favor of selling drugs and procedures to treat the symptoms of dehydration.

FACT - Nothing kills life quicker than lack of water.

FACT - The people with the worst health drink the least water and use the most deadly diuretic drought causing drugs - caffeine and/or alcohol.

FACT - The salinity of the water outside the cells in our bodies is the same as the ocean.

FACT - In the middle ages people were put to a horrible death by salt deprivation.

FACT - Health care makes big bucks by selling a quart of water with salt in it (Saline 4) for up to $350.00 installed, but won't tell the patients they do indeed need more water and salt in their diets.

FACT - How can you expect drug companies to do research on the importance of water in our daily lives when they can't make money on it? Who does research to put themselves out of business?

FACT - No two substances in the Bible are mentioned more than water and salt. 

FACT - The environment of an unborn baby is water and salt.

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Here are some of the other reasons why your body needs water everyday:

Without water, nothing lives.

Comparative shortage of water suppresses and eventually kills some aspects of the body.

Water is the main source of energy—the “cash flow” of the body.

Water generates electrical and magnetic energy inside each and every cell of the body—it provides the power to live.Water prevents DNA damage and makes its repair mechanisms more efficient—less abnormal DNA is made.

Water increases greatly the efficiency of the immune system in the bone marrow where the immune system is formed (all its mechanisms)—including its efficiency against cancer.

Water is the main solvent for all foods, vitamins, and minerals.

It is used in the breakdown of food into smaller particles and their eventual metabolism and assimilation.

Water energizes food, and food particles are then able to supply the body with this energy during digestion.

This is why food without water has absolutely no energy value for the body.

Water increases the rate of absorption into the body of essential substances in food.

Water is used to transport all substances inside the body.

Water increases the efficiency of red blood sells in collecting oxygen in the lungs.When water reaches a cell, it brings the cell oxygen and takes the waste gases to the lungs for disposal.

Water clears toxic waste from different parts of the body and takes it to the liver and kidneys for disposal.

Water is the main lubricant in the joint spaces and prevents arthritis and back pain.

Water is used in the spinal discs to make them “shock-absorbing water cushions.

”Water is the best lubricating laxative and prevents constipation.

Water prevents heart attacks and strokes.

Water prevents clogging of arteries in the heart and the brain.

Water is essential for the body's cooling (sweat) and heating (electrical) systems.

Water gives us power and electrical energy for all brain functions, particularly thinking.

Water is directly needed for the efficient manufacture of all neurotransmitters, including serotonin.

Water is directly needed for the production of all hormones made by the brain, including melatonin.

Water prevents attention deficit disorder in children and adults.

Water increases efficiency at work; it expands your attention span.

Water is a better pick-me-up than any other beverage in the world—and it has no side effects.

Water prevents stress, anxiety, and depression.

Water restores normal sleep rhythms.

Water prevents fatigue—it gives the energy of youth.

Water makes the skin smooth and prevents aging.

Water gives luster and shine to the eyes.

Water prevents glaucoma.Water normalizes the blood-manufacturing systems in the bone marrow—it helps prevent leukemia and lymphoma.

Water is absolutely vital for making the immune system more efficient in different regions to fight infections and cancer cells where they are formed.

Water dilutes the blood and prevents it from clotting during circulation.

Water decreases premenstrual pains and hot flashes.

Water and heartbeats create the dilution of “waves” that keep things from “sedimenting” in the blood stream.

The human body has no water storage to draw on during dehydration.

This is why you must drink regularly throughout the day.

Dehydration prevents sex hormone production—one of the primary causes of impotence and loss of libido.

Drinking water separates the sensations of thirst and hunger.

To lose weight, water is the best way to go—drink water on time and lose weight without much dieting.

Also, you will not eat excessively when you are only thirsty for water.

Dehydration causes deposits of toxic sediments in the tissue spaces, fat stores, joints, kidneys, liver, brain, and skin.

Water will clear these deposits.Water takes away the morning sickness of pregnancy.

Water integrates mind and body functions.It increases the ability to realize goals and purpose.

Water prevents the loss of memory as we age. It prevents Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Lou Gehrig's disease.

Water reverses addictive urges, including those for caffeine, alcohol, and some addictive drugs.

In your “watercure recipe” the reader is told to “[u]se 1/4 tsp. of salt for every quart of water you drink”. As most people in the world use decimal system, we are not familiar with the word “quart” (I had to look it up in a conversion table), or even “oz”, and as the U.S. quart is considerably smaller that the Imperial quart, the results can be serious.

Furthermore, even “cups”, “teaspoons” etc. refer to different volumes in different countries. The universally used and understood measure for a teaspoon is 5 ml. Universally accepted measure for a cup is 0.25 litres; U.S. cup is slightly less.

To illustrate:

One U.S. quart of liquid = 0.95 litres or 0.83 Imperial quarts

One Imperial quart of liquid = 1.14 litres or 1.20 U.S. quarts

One German quart of liquid = 1.15 litres

One U.S. teaspoon = 0.89 decimal or 1.39 Imperial

One Imperial teaspoon = 0.71 decimal or 0.72 U.S.

Water and, diet and body function, deseases

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IMPORTANT Tips To Know Before Starting The Water Cure Program

You must be sure your kidneys are working ok. This means liquid in results in liquid out.  For example: the amount of water or other beverages taken in should be urinated during the day.

Here are Dr. Batman's recommendations:


  • The “rule of thumb” for water is half your body weight in ounces taken throughout the day. A little less or even a little more is ok.
  • The “rule of thumb” for salt is 1/8 tsp( ¾ g ) of salt per 16 oz ( ½ liter ) of water.
  • If you have any swelling of your feet, ankles, legs, arms, fingers, eyelids you must stop all salt for 2 to 3 days and just drink the water.
  •   The exception to this would be swelling from an injury/accident.You probably just rolled your eyes to the back of your head saying, “Are you nuts… that's a lot of water to drink”. Actually, it's quite simple to accomplish this when taken in say… 8 glasses of water spaced throughout the day.


For example, lets take a 192 pound person. Half their body weight is 96 pounds. Change that to 96 ounces. Divide that by 8, for the number of glasses you are going to drink, which equals 12 ounces. You would be drinking 8 (12 ounce) glasses of water per day. Now… wouldn't you agree that drinking the water this way it is easy to do?

If you do not drink this much water right now, you must start adding the extra water very slowly . This gives your body time to adjust to the added water intake. If you don't, the water will act like a water pill (diuretic), pulling necessary minerals from your body, possibly causing more harm than good. Senior citizens and children MUST start adding the extra water slowly.

Here's how to increase your water intake slowly. Using the above example, start out with (3) – 8 oz glasses of water your first day. The next day add one or two glasses. Keep doing this until your required glasses per day is reached. Now start increasing the ounces until your total per glass is reached.

Please keep in mind; it's only a rule of thumb on half your body weight in ounces of water and 1/8 tsp of salt for every 16 oz of water.  Some people will require a little more water where others will require a little more salt. 

After a while, the body's requirements can change for a little more water and salt because of hot weather, cold weather or exercise.  Each person must find his or her body's requirement at this time. 

Never drink more than 33.8 oz  (1 liter) of water maximum at one time (or sitting).                       

  • Children ages 2 and up will need 75% of their body weight in ounces of water per day, because their bodies are growing all the time and every cell in their expanding body needs this extra water (mytosis).
  • Children that are active or playing sports can require up to 100% of their body weight in ounces of water per day.
  • The water cure program does not apply to newborns up to 2 years of age.

Iodized table salt will work in a pinch, but unrefined non-oven-dried sea salt is best, because of the extra trace minerals found in it. Sea salt also tastes better. 

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There are four ways to take the salt: 

One of the most popular ways is to mix the salt into the water. This salt will improve the taste of most water by making it a little sweet.

The second way is to just toss the salt into your mouth and drink the water over the salt, washing it down.

 If you are very salt-sensitive then you would get some empty capsules and put the amount of salt you require into the capsules and take it with food. 

You could also just put the extra salt on your food.  The only problem with that is acquiring a taste for very salty food.

You need to read the “histamine article” so you can better understand how to tell when you need more salt, more water or more potassium (which is found in most foods).

It is very important for you to have one of Dr. Batman's books.  A suggestion would be “ABC of Asthma, Allergies and Lupus” or his latest book “Obesity, Cancer and Depression”.  The ABC book contains a lot more than what the title says. 

There are 6 pages in each book on why a person needs salt and what it does in the human body. 


If you have any swelling of your feet, ankles, legs, arms, fingers, eyelids or excessive diarrhea you must stop all salt for 2 to 3 days , just drink the water.  The exception to this would be swelling from an injury/accident. Note: Too much salt can cause diarrhea.

Then begin taking the salt again, but add it back slowly. You should use no more than
1/8 tsp ( ¾ g ) of salt per 16 oz ( ½ liter ) of water.

Dr. Batman says drinking plain water by itself will flush out all the extra salt the body was holding in the cells and help clean out the system. The water will run through you very quickly pulling very important minerals from the body.  It is suggested you take a multi-vitamin with all three main meals to replace what minerals might have been pulled out.

When the swelling is gone, you can restart the program of drinking half your body weight in ounces of water. This time however, you will take it in small amounts throughout the day, slowly increasing the amount of water until up to half your weight in ounces of water has been reached.  Also start taking the salt with the water.

You must also make sure you are getting at least 150 mcg of iodine in your multi-vitamins each day, up to a maximum of 450 mcg of iodine each day.

Water should stay inside your body for 2-3 hours so your body has time to use the water properly.

If you are peeing (urinating) sooner than 2-3 hours after drinking your water, you should stop drinking plain water and switch to drinking orange juice, lemonade, grape/cranberry juice or any other juice. One point of caution…asthmatics should never drink orange juice

Note: When drinking orange juice, you should add 1/8 tspn of salt per 8 ounces.
If drinking juice does not work, the next thing to try is experimenting with drinking your juice while eating a bagel. This means:
·          Drink and eat the bagel at the same time… or
·          Eat the bagel first then drink your juice
·          Optional – increasing the salt to 1/8 tspn salt per 8 ounces, when you are eating the bagel may help retain the water longer

You can put cream cheese, real butter or jam on the bagel.

After using a whole bagel for a day or two, then you can cut down to using half a bagel, then a quarter and just stop the bagel and use your food to take with the juice. 

Here is how you should slowly go from drinking juice to going back to drinking plain water again. After a few days you should try drinking 2 ounces of plain water a half hour before eating food.  Then you can increase the water to 4 ounces a half hour before eating food.  Next it would be 6 ounces, then 8 ounces and so on until up to your required amount. 

Have you every heard the saying, “we are mostly made of water”. This is the reason why:


  • Our blood is 94%
  • waterOur brain is 85 %
  • waterOur soft tissue cells are 75 %water


 * Disclaimer – This information is intended to educate, not replace your doctor or need for medications. It is a suggested program for your benefit.


The most important factor for survival – after water, air, salt, and food – is exercise. Exercise is more important to the health of the individual than sex, entertainment, or anything else that might be pleasurable. The following points explain the importance of exercise for better health and a longer, pain-free life.

Exercise expands the vascular system in the muscle tissue and prevents hypertension.

 It opens the capillaries in the muscle tissue and by lower the resistance to blood flow in the arterial system, causes blood pressure to drop to normal.

Exercise stimulates the activity of fat-burning enzymes for manufacture of the constantly needed energy for muscle activity. When you train, you are in effect changing the source of energy for muscle activity. You convert the energy source from sugar that is in circulation to fat that is stored in the muscle itself.

Exercise makes muscles burn, as additional fuel, some of the amino acids that would otherwise reach toxic levels in the body.In their greater-than-normal levels in the blood—usually reached in an unexercised body—certain branched-chain amino acids cause a drastic destruction and depletion to other vital amino acids.Some of these discarded essential amino acids are constantly needed by the brain to manufacture its neurotransmitters. Two of these essential amino acids are tryptophan and tyrosine. A more important role of tryptophan than its use as a precursor of neurotransmitters in the brain is its role in an enzyme system that recognizes and repairs incorrect DNA transcriptions. The brain also uses tryptophan to make serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine, and indolamine, all of which are antidepressants and regulate sugar levels and blood pressure. Tyrosine is used for the manufacture of adrenalin, noradrenaline, dopamine—vital for the coordination of body physiology when it has to take physical action such as fighting, running, playing sports, and so on. Excess tyrosine loss from the amino acid reserves of the body is also a primary factor in Parkinson's disease.

Unexercised muscle gets broken down. As a result of the excretion of muscle parts from the body, some of the reserves of zinc and vitamin B6 also get lost. At a certain stage of this constant depletion of vitamin B6 and zinc, certain mental disorders and neurological complications occur. In effect, this happens in autoimmune diseases, including lupus and muscular dystrophy.

Exercise makes the muscles hold more water in reserve and prevents increased concentration of blood, which would otherwise damage the lining of the blood vessel walls.

Exercise lowers blood sugar in diabetics and decreases their need for insulin or tablet medications.

Exercise compels the liver to manufacture sugar from the fat that it stores or the fat that is circulating within the blood.

Exercise causes an increase in the mobility of the joints in the body. It causes the creation of an intermittent vacuum inside the joint cavities. The force of the vacuum causes suction of water into the cavity. Water in the joint cavity brings dissolved nutrients to the cells inside the cartilage. Increased water content of the cartilage also adds to its lubrication and smoother bone-on-bone gliding movements of the joint.

Leg muscles act as secondary hearts. By their contractions and relaxations during the time we are upright, the leg muscles overcome the force of gravity. They pump into the venous system the blood that was sent to the legs. Because of the pressure breakers—and one-directional valves in the vein—the blood in the leg veins is pushed upward against gravity by frequent contraction of the leg muscles. This is how the leg muscles act as hearts for the venous system in the body. This is a value to exercise that not many people appreciate. Leg muscles also cause an equally effective flow within the lymphatic system and cause edema in the legs to disappear.

Exercise strengthens the bones of the body and helps prevent osteoporosis.

Exercise increases the production of all vital hormones, enhancing libido and heightening sexual performance.

One hour of walking will cause the activation of fat-burning enzymes, which remain active for twelve hours. A morning and afternoon walk will keep these enzymes active around the clock and will cause clearance of cholesterol deposits in the arterial system.Exercise will enhance the activity of the adrenaline-operated sympathetic nerve system.

Adrenaline will also reduce the over-secretion of histamine and, as a result, will prevent asthma attacks and allergic reactions—provided the body is fully hydrated.Exercise will increase production of endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins, the natural opiates of the body. They produce the same “high” that drug addicts try to achieve through their abusive intake.

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Exercising the body for endurance is better than exercising it for speed or for building excess muscle. In selecting an exercise, you should consider its lifetime value. A long-distance runner will enjoy the exercise value of long-distance runs into old age. A sprinter will not sprint for exercise at a later phase of life.

The best exercise that you can enjoy—even to a ripe old age, and without causing damage to your joints—is walking. Other exercises that will increase your endurance are swimming, golf, skiing, skating, climbing, tennis, squash, bicycling, tai chi, dancing, yoga, and aerobics. In selecting an exercise, evaluate its ability to keep the fat-burning enzymes active for longer durations. Outdoor forms of exercise are more beneficial to the body than indoor. The body becomes better connected to nature.

The four most vital steps to better health are: balancing the water and salt content of the body, exercising the muscle mass of the body—more effective in the open and in sunlight—taking a balanced daily diet of proteins and vegetables, and avoiding dehydrating beverages. These simple steps will be effective in the prevention of disease and are the foundation to any cure process the body needs pain

Before dehydration hurts you irreversibly, when you're plum-like cells become prune-like, your body will show its urgent need for water through different types of pain. These pains are the newly understood, drastic ways of showing dehydration.

After much clinical and scientific research, my understanding is that the early indicators of acid burns in the interior of the cells and potential genetic damage that can take place are different forms and intensities of pain. Depending on the degree of dehydration, as well as the extent and the location of acid buildup inside the cells—when greater flow of water should have cleared the acid from that area—the classic pains of the body are produced. They are:


  1. Heartburn
  2. Dyspeptic pain
  3. Anginal pain
  4. Lower back pain
  5. Rheumatoid joint pain, including ankylosing spondylitis
  6. Migraine headachesColitis pain
  7. Fibromyalgic pains
  8. Morning sickness during pregnancy
  9. Bulimia


Today, there are 110 million Americans who, at certain times, need pain medications to make life bearable. How pain that is not caused by injury or infection can be produced by dehydration is simple to understand. This very simple mechanism of pain production has eluded us in medicine ever since humankind looked for a way to deal with some of the devastating pains of the human body. The drug industry spends billions of dollars researching painkillers, and even more money advertising their particular brand of pain medication. I don't believe the answer is in these medications, however. Dehydration can be cured by water, for free.

To understand the mechanism of pain production in the body, we first need to learn about the way the acid-alkaline balance in the body works. An acidic environment causes irritation of certain nerve endings in the body. When this irritation occurs, the brain is alerted about the chemical environmental change, which is translated and manifested as pain to the conscious mind. In other words, it is the acidity in the interior of the body that causes pain.

Normally, when blood that contains an ample amount of water circulates around the cells of the body, some of the water goes into the cells and brings out hydrogen molecules. Water washes the acidity out of the cell and makes the cell interior alkaline—an absolutely essential and normal state. For optimum health, the body should maintain an alkaline state—pH 7.4 is the desired level.

Why 7.4, and what is pH? The relationship between acid and alkaline is scientifically measured on a scale of 1 to 14. This scale is known as pH. From 1 to 7 on this scale is the acid range, 1 being more acid than 7. From 7 to 14 on the scale is the alkaline range; 7 is less alkaline than 14. On the pH scale, 7 is neutral, meaning optimum. Thus, pH 7.4 of the interior of the cell denotes its natural, slightly alkaline state. This state promotes health because it is the state that best suits the enzymes that function inside the cell: They achieve optimum efficiency at this pH. Adequate flow of water in and out of the cell keeps the cell interior in its health-maintaining alkaline state.

You have probably seen historic monuments and buildings with artistic statues and carved masonry that have been damaged by pigeons perching on them and smearing them with their droppings. Bird excrement is highly acidic and eats into the stone. In time, the statues and carvings lose their features and definition. The DNA in the nucleus inside the cells of the body is alkaline and, like stone buildings, is also sensitive to the corrosive effects of acidity.

In our bodies, the kidneys mop up excess hydrogen ions—which cause acidity—from the blood and excrete them through the urine that is formed. The more urine that is produced, the more easily the body keeps its interior alkaline. This is why clear urine is an indicator of an efficient acid-clearing mechanism, and dark yellow or orange urine is an ominous sign of impending acid burns in the interior of the body. People who consider having to pass urine more than two or three times a day inconvenient, and do not drink water so that they do not have to urinate more than they can help, are ignorant of how they are hurting their bodies.

The brain is better protected against acid buildup by the fact that it gets priority for delivery of water for all its needs. The rest of the body may not be so fortunate when dehydration establishes in the body and settles in one or another part for a long period of time. With persistent dehydration, however, the brain, too, becomes damaged from acidity in the cells—hence conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease to undergo.
Source : From Water for Health, for Healing, for Life by F. Batmangheldij M.D.

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Interesting Water Supply Facts

California 's water supply is often described as feast or famine. Because the Golden State is prone to frequent bouts with drought and floods, the state must rely on an elaborate web of water projects to supply cities, farms, businesses and the environment with adequate water year-round.


Precipitation varies widely from year to year. In average years, about 193 million acre-feet (MAF) of rain and snow falls on California . One acre-foot is about 326,000 gallons, or enough water to supply two typical families for a year. 
More than 100 million acre-feet of the rain and snow received soaks into the ground, evaporates or is used by native vegetation. That leaves about 71 million acre-feet of usable surface water. Of that water:

36% flows out to the ocean

28% is legally committed to wild and scenic rivers and San Francisco Bay-Delta outflow

28% is used by agriculture

7% is used by cities and industry

Water Delivery System

California 's cities, farms and businesses rely on water from a variety of sources. Surface water projects, which capture and deliver rain and snow runoff, provide a major portion of the state's total water supply. The projects include more than 1,000 federal, state and local reservoirs. 

Two of the most important projects are the federal Central Valley Project (CVP) and the State Water Project (SWP). The CVP and SWP bring water from Northern California through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta for delivery to users in the San Joaquin Valley , parts of the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California . 

Key water projects and the amount of water they deliver:

  1. Central Valley Project (federal) -- 7 MAF (million acre-feet)
  2. State Water Project (state) -- 2.3 MAF
  3. All-American Canal (local) -- 3 MAF
  4. Colorado River Aqueduct (local) -- 1.2 MAF
  5. Los Angeles Aqueduct (local) -- 200,000 AF
  6. Mokelumne Aqueduct (local) -- 364,000 AF
  7. San Francisco Hetch Hetchy Project (local) -- 330,000 AF


California 's rapidly growing population -- estimated to reach 40 million by 2010 -- is putting mounting pressure on the state's water supplies. State officials now predict that California will experience annual shortages of 4 MAF to 6 MAF by 2010 unless steps are taken now to address the declining reliability of the state's water supply system.

Usage Information

  • Landscaping accounts for about half the water Californians use at home. Showers account for another 18%, while toilets use about 20%. 
  • One acre-foot of water is enough to meet the needs of two typical families for a year. 
  • Per capita water use varies around the state. Central Valley residents use up to 300 gallons per person per day, while some Central Coast residents use as little as 50 gallons per day.
  • California will be chronically short of water by 2010, unless steps are taken now to improve our water supply system. 
  • It takes 3.3 acre-feet of water to grow enough food for an average family for a year. 
  • A water storage project typically takes 10 to 20 years to design and build.


1 CFS =448.8 GPM   =2 A.F./day
1 cu. ft. =7.48 gallons   =62.4 lbs
1 million gal. =3.069 A.F.    =694 GPM/Day
1 A.F. =43,560 cu. ft. =325,851 gallons
1 ft. =0.433 PSI


H.P. =CFS x HEAD / 8.8
1 HP =746 watts         =550 ft. lb. / sec
1 ft. =0.433 PSI


GPM =gallons per minute
CFS =Cubic Feet a Second
A.F. =Acre Feet
PSI =Pounds per Square Inch
watt =measurement of energy
H.P. =Horse Power
Gal. =Gallons

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Winter Hydration Tips

Presented here are a few winter hydration tips to keep you, your family and friends at your peak during the winter holiday season: 

* Take a bottle of water with you when skiing, ice-skating or shoveling snow; water will help you stay warm, it helps regulate your body temperature;  

* Replace high-calorie drinks such as eggnog or alcohol with a glass of sparkling water with a twist OR cut the calories by mixing a wine spritzer – half wine, half sparkling water;  

* Serve a refreshing holiday punch by combining sparkling water with fruit punch and fruit garnish;  

* Provide bottled water for guests and designated drivers as an alternative to alcohol when entertaining. 

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Frequently Asked Questions

Table of Contents

1.How much water?
2.How much salt and how do I use it?
3.Can I drink decaffeinated coffee?
4.What about tea? (Is there a difference?)
5.Where can I get good sea salt?
6.What exactly will this help?
7.What temperature should the water be?
8.Can I drink water or anything else with my meals?
9.When I drink water, I feel nauseous. Is this normal? What do I do?
10.Will it wash out vitamins and minerals?
11.Will I be running to the bathroom a lot?
12.I don't like the taste of water. Can I add something to it to give it some flavor?
13.If I need 2 quarts of water daily, how am I supposed to consume this?
14.Where can I find people who have been helped with my situation? Can I contact them?
15.How can I help spread the word of the watercure in my town?
16.How can the watercure cure so many problems?
17.Why does the watercure work so quickly?
18.Why do you say that healthcare is a common sense deficiency disorder?
19.Why can't we drink sea water if salt water is so good for us?
If I am salt sensitive, what can I do about it?

How much water?

Half your body weight in ounces. If you weigh 200 lbs., you will need 100 oz. of water. That is approx. 3 quarts. A quart is 32 oz. A 1.5 liter bottle has 6 servings of 8 oz., which makes it 48 oz.. 

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How much salt and how do I use it?

¼ tsp. per quart of water you drink daily. You can put the ¼ tsp. of sea salt "IN" the bottle of water, or season your food, as it is suggested, or lick some off the palm of your hand, and then drink some water. What is important is that you get the proper balance throughout the day . You can't take all your salt in just two times a day, no more than you could do all your breathing in only two times a day. You cannot drink half of your water in one sitting and then the rest later that day and expect to be fully hydrated.

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Can I drink decaffeinated coffee?

You must remember that decaffeinated coffee still has some caffeine unless it is naturally decaffeinated. It also goes through a process to decaffeinate it with chemicals like formaldehyde. So, you are actually trading a little caffeine for chemicals. Ask yourself, is it worth it? How much arsenic is enough?

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What about tea? (Is there a difference?)

Tea, according to Dr. Batmanghelidj is worse than coffee. It not only is a diuretic, but it strips your body of the vitamins and minerals we are trying to put back into our bodies. At the top of the list, as far as teas go, there are black teas (your regular run of the mill teas), which are the worst, containing the most caffeine. Decaffeinated teas are a little better, but still are not as natural as you should have. Naturally decaffeinated teas are the best. 

BUT: I asked Dr. Batman about this, and he said, "An herb is an herb is an herb. Marijuana is an herb, so take it from there." A suggestion is to use in moderation. If you have suffered with asthma or other upper respiratory problems, like myself, be aware of how they make you feel. I have found it difficult to breathe after 2 cups of naturally decaffeinated. 
Green tea has 3x's the caffeine. While it is supposed to be a great anit-oxidant, beware of the caffeine.

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Where can I get good sea salt?

BE CAREFUL when buying sea salt or Celtic Sea Salt. If it does not list minerals on the back, the odds are that you have just bought expensive, prettier packaged table salt. All salt came from the sea at one point . So it is legal for anyone to label their low grade salt as sea salt . Good Celtic Sea Salt is NOT white or dry.

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What exactly will this help?

We have testimonials from all over the world on how the water cure has "reversed", or totally eliminated cancer, MS, MD, asthma, allergies, acid reflux, arthritis, ulcers and other digestive problems, joint pain, headaches, back problems, diabetes, depression, aids in weight loss, scleroderma and other skin problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and many more. The watercure is a "preventative measure" to take to obtain optimum health. We were not born with a caffeine or alcohol deficiency . Both of these drugs act the way dry gas does to gasoline in a car. It takes the life essential nutrient-water, out.

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What temperature should the water be?

Dr. Batmanghelidj suggests that we drink room temp or cool water. Cold water (with ice) shocks the stomach lining and disrupts our digestive system. Instead of drinking coffee in the morning, Dr. Batman drinks hot water. Give it a try. It's really very good and gives you that warm feeling you are looking for.

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Can I drink water or anything else with my meals?

To prevent our digestive juices from becoming diluted and weak, it is suggested to drink two (2) glasses of water one half (1/2) hour BEFORE meals. It is O.K. to sip water with meals, but not drink a lot. This also helps in weight loss.

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When I drink water, I feel nauseous. Is this normal? What do I do?

If one is severely dehydrated and used to only their caffeine or alcohol intake, this may be a problem. Try drinking small sips of water throughout the day. Drink only an amount that will not upset your stomach. Nausea can be caused by an acidic condition. You need to bring up your alkalinity level. By taking a pinch of sea salt along with the sip of water will help to neutralize your stomach acids. In most cases, it takes about a week before you can drink the proper amount of water. Don't give up.

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I understand that the watercure will help me to wash out the toxins in my body.

ABSOLUTELY!! We've seen people totally lose alcohol cravings in 24 hours because the toxins were washed out. Water is the "roto rooter" of the body.

Will it also wash out the vitamins and minerals as well? (Potassium)

It will if way overdone, and if not enough sea salt was used.

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Will I be running to the bathroom a lot?

When you first start the watercure, it does seem like you are running a lot. As your body hydrates, this will slow down. Like a dried out plant, if you pour a glass of water on it, what will happen? The water will run right out of it. But if you pour it on slowly, it will hydrate, and not lose so much. Remember that your sea salt intake is vital. This will help you to retain what your body needs.

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I don't like the taste of water. Can I add something to it to give it some flavor?

Yes, but when you do, it changes the molecular structure. H2O is H2O. When you add too much orange juice or lemon juice or something else to it, it becomes a food, not water as intended.

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If I need 2 quarts of water daily, how am I supposed to consume this?

Again, start out slowly if you are not used to drinking water. One can not become hydrated properly if you drink half the amount you are to take at breakfast and then the other half at dinner. Your body will release more than you will retain. Plus, you will be washing out vitamins and minerals unless taken in slowly. Your urine should be a light lemonaid color, not clear. In some cases, it is suggested to drink out of a 3 oz. bathroom size cup. Anyone can handle drinking 3 oz of water every half hour.

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Where can I find people who have been helped with my situation? Can I contact them?

We have phone numbers or e-mail addresses on most testimonials on our web site. More and more testimonials are coming in from across the world. In that case, e-mail addresses are included. If you have trouble contacting someone, let us know by e-mail, and we will see what we can do.

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How can I help spread the word of the watercure in my town?

You must have your own testimonial or a relative or close friend that made an amazing recovery otherwise you will have little credibility.  Also refer people to www.watercure.com and www.watercure2.org .

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How can the watercure cure so many problems?

According to the research of F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., about 85% of all health, mental, emotional, poor grades, sports performance, cancer, M.S., M.D., diabetes, alcoholism, and behavioral problems, (including violent behavior) are caused by lack of water and/or salt in the body. If this is true, then the only thing that can cure them is water and/or salt. Whatever improves after going on the watercure is obviously caused by lack of water and/or salt. I have seen it work countless times. 

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Why does the watercure work so quickly?

If a person is suffering from lack of water, then it's no different than having a lawn turn brown because of lack of water. After you water the lawn, how long does it take for the grass to turn green? Dehydrated people and all living things recover so quickly when their water shortage is corrected. But, in some cases, if you are so terribly dehydrated, it may take a while before you fully appreciate and see a difference.

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Why do you say that health care is a common sense deficiency disorder?

Because if the 2nd and 3rd most essential nutrients are water and salt in the body, (the 1st being oxygen), wouldn't common sense tell us to check those levels first? Does your doctor ask you about your water/salt intake? ....caffeine/alcohol intake?

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Why can't we drink sea water if salt water is so good for us?

Because there is too much salt in ocean water. If a person keeps putting salt into a glass of water it will just keep getting stronger and stronger because the salt will dissolve into the water. Sea water will kill a person. Saline in the hospital is one liter of water (about a quart ) and 9 grams of salt ( 1- 1/2 tsp of salt) Anything stronger then that will not be good. Read Dr B's book ABC of Asthma, Allergies and Lupus. Read page 144-150 and should get Dr B's lecture on CD (water and salt) for more inforOur siteion.

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If I am salt sensitive, what can I do about it?

It is detailed in the recipe. You need to quit the salt for two days & gradually reintroduce it.

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