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Suspended and floatable particles in water and their significance

Depending upon the source, WATER which comes into our regular use carries different types of suspended and floatable particles such as sand, dirt, silt, clay, rust, leaves, algae, plankton, microbes etc. These particles may create serious issues with the systems and processes using this un-treated quality water. Some of the associated risks are excessive wear within pump, especially impeller components, damage to seals, gaskets and diaphragms of pumps, valves and other parts, damage to other upstream filtration, especially  membrane filtration, reduced life span of other filters like carbon, softener, deionizer, birm, calcite etc., excessive wear and deposits inside plumbing. These suspended particles also work as a carrier to transport various bacteria and viruses and may make our water unhealthy for drinking or other potable applications.

Various technologies commonly known for filtration are now available to manage the issues linked to suspended solids (See details below). Basically, they provide a barrier to the flow of incoming SS and block or trap debris (i.e., silt, clay) from passing through it. The  filtration spectrum indicates few import filtration techniques being used for water filtration.


Automatic Back-washing Screen Filter provides a simple, reliable & economical solution to high flow feed water carrying higher suspended solids concentration. Single unit may be used for high flow rates upto 1000 m3/hr.  These filters carry stainless steel screens of varying sizes i.e., 10-200 micron which are automatically backwashed as the system indicates specific pressure drop across the filter. Best suited as pre-filters for high suspended solids load feed water. Horizontal as well as vertical configurations available. Commonly used as primary solution all filtration systems.

Sand filters is the most economical & widely used system to filter out incoming suspended solids coming with water. It uses selected media to filter out SS and is back-washed periodically to clean its surface, hence carry lowest O&M solution. Slow and rapid filtration modes available. For higher flow requirements, may be arranged in parallel configurations.

Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filtration is a low pressure membrane process for water treatment that is designed to reduce SS, turbidity, dirt, silt bacteria, viruses, proteins etc. UF membranes usually comes in PVDF, PP materials.

UF effectively removes even small particles in the size ranges of less than 0.01 to 0.1 mm. The UF process is used in a wide variety of applications and industries and typical feed sources include seawater, surface, well and waste waters.

Stainless steel water filter housings (Multiple cartridge) are suited to many commercial , industrial, pharma, lab high flow liquid filtration applications and are available to suit standard and sanitary cartridges. These SS housings are available in various quality SS construction as 304, 316, 316L etc. Single housing may accommodate upto 22 cartridges of varying size i.e., 10”, 20:, 30”, 40” etc. Can be arranged in series or parallel configuration to achieve high flow output of 300 m3/hr.  Available in Clamp-on and bolt models.

Bag filter is know for low cost filtration solution which is effectively being used for high flow industrial and commercial water filtration.

Filter bag usually constructed in PP, nylon, polyester, PP, cotton is put in a filter housing  made up of  various material as PVC,  CS/MS, SS etc for filtration. Bag Filter Housings are a popular choice among water filtration professionals for their versatility, size, economy, high flow, simplicity, water saving and wide range of applications. Can accommodate filtration from 5μ up to 2000μ.

Cartridge filtration is a widely used method when simplicity, accuracy and filtration efficiency is important. Comprises of a housing made up of PP, AS, PE, SS and suitable material cartridge. Cartridge housings usually comes in 10” & 20” length and can accommodate filter cartridges of 2.5” dia and 4” dia.  Depending  upon the applications, they come in varying inlet/outlet port options (1/4”, 1/2” 3/4” 1”, 1 1/2” etc). For their simplicity, ease of operation, they are widely being used for most of the domestic and commercial water treatment applications.

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